Baboons live in African woodland savannas, and subsist on roots, tubers, grasses, seeds, and fruit, but also hunt animals smaller than themselves. The three genera of baboons, Mandrillus, Papio, and Theropithecus, are not closely related and differ in morphology and behavior. Papio cynocephalus has a dog-like muzzle and a yellowish-brown coat of fur. Like all baboons, yellow baboons are sexually dimorphic, weighing between 11-26 kg (24-57 lbs), with females approximately 1/2 the size of males. Most times baboons live in polygamous social groups with up to nine females, but they also congregate into foraging "bands" of 30 individuals, or into "troops" of as large as 100.
Chimpanzees live in a variety of African habitats, and consume both vegetation and meat. Part of the family of great apes, the four recognized subspecies of chimpanzees are Pan versus, P. paniscus, and P. schweinfurthii, and P. troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee. Characterized by large ears, chimpanzees also have a prognathic (protruding) face with large lips and pronounced supraorbital crests. Their weight ranges between 34-70 kg (75-154 lbs) for males, and 25-50 kg (55-110 lbs) for females, with higher weights observed in captivity. Chimpanzees are known for manufacturing and using tools, something once considered an exclusively human trait.
Marmosets, all seventeen named species, live in the New World tropical forests of South America. Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset, weighs on average 370 gm (.81 lb). C. jacchus is a gray color with a banded tail; it also has distinct, long tufts of white or cream fur around the base of the ears. Marmosets are small, quick, aggressive, territorial, and feed on a variety of insects, fruits, and vegetable matter. The marmoset's lower canine teeth are adapted to perforate tree bark, allowing them to access the tree exudate (tree gum). Male and females share infant care, with males frequently carrying the babies on their backs and giving them to the mothers to nurse.
Gibbons, specifically the Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), are a robustly built species among the 10 other species in the family Hylobatidae. Measuring 75-90 cm (29.5-35.4 in) long and weighing 8-13 kg (17.6-28.6 lbs), S. syndactylus possesses an arm-spread of 1.5 m (almost 5 ft). S. syndactylus is black in color with a longer, thinner coat than other species. The Siamang is distinguished by a large, hairless, empty air sac on the front of their throats that inflates during vocalization, and by webbing between their second and third toes. S. syndactylus, like other gibbon species, are brachiators, meaning that they travel through the trees by swinging with their arms. The Siamang is an omnivore, but fruit is their main dietary focus.
Gorillas, the largest living primates, stand up to 1.75 meters (68.8 in) tall on two feet, and have arm spans up to 2.75 meters (108 in). Adult male gorillas weigh between 135-275 kg (297-605 lb) and females, 70-140 kg (154-308 lb). In captivity, gorillas can weigh as much as 350 kg (770 lb). There are three subspecies within the genus, Gorilla gorilla, the western lowland gorilla; G. gorilla graueri, the eastern lowland gorilla; and G. gorilla beringei, the mountain gorilla. Mainly vegetarians, Gorillas have special stomachs for consuming tough plant material; however, the lowland gorilla consumes vegetation and fruit.
Humans are unique among primates in that they alone practice obligatory bipedalism and their skeletons show distinctive adaptations for this form of locomotion. Humans' ability to regulate their body heat over long periods of heavy activity is also unique, as are their large brains that are highly developed organs that allow for technology, and diversity of culture and language. These qualities enable humans to travel over water, in the air, and into space. Humans live permanently in almost all terrestrial parts of the planet, and occupy inhospitable environments such as the Sahara and the Antarctic temporarily. Homo sapiens is the only extant human species.
Galagos are African arboreal, nocturnal primates. Between the three species - Galago senegalensis, the Lesser Bushbaby; G. crassicaudatus, the Thick-Tailed Galago; and G. Alleni, Allen's Galago - there are 19 subspecies living in a variety of habitats. G. senegalensis inhabits the coast of Guinea, the savannas of West and sub-Saharan Africa. Males weigh between 151-173 g and females 150-163 g. G. senegalensis has a distinct stripe between the eyes extending down the nose, and ears with four transverse fold lines the animal uses to compress or extend its ears. With longer forelimbs than hindlimbs, galagos are able to cross distances of more than two meters (6 1/2 ft) in a single jump.
Mouse Lemurs are members of the genus Microcebus that is grouped within the Lemuridae taxonomic family. Among the three known species are Microcebus rufus, the Eastern Mouse Lemur; M. murinus, the Western Mouse Lemur; and M. myoxinus, a recently recognized species. M. rufus weighs only 39-98 g (.08-.22 lb), living in the forests of northern and eastern Madagascar, primarily in the secondary forests. M. rufus has brown fur with a dark stripe along its back, and a white stripe from its eyes to its nose. The M. rufus diet consists of fruit, flowers, gum, and leaves, with a preference for insects. M. rufus stores fat in its tail during the wet season in preparation for the dry season when its activity decreases significantly.
Orangutans belong to a single species known as Pongo pygmaeus categorized into two subspecies: P. p. pygmaeus of Borneo, and P. p. abelii of Sumatra. Orangutans have specialized upper limbs adapted for suspensory locomotion but are quadrupeds when on the ground. Standing 1.25-1.5 m (4 - 5 ft) tall, Orangutans have an arm span of about 2.25 m (7.4 ft). Adult males weigh 50-90 kg (110 - 198 lbs) and adult females 30-50 kg (66 - 110 lbs). They have bulging foreheads, protruding snouts, thin lips, and small ears. Orangutans have coarse, thin coats brownish-red in color, though P. p. abelii has slightly lighter coloring. Primarily frugivores, Orangutans also consume leaves, bark, and bird’s eggs.
Lemurs, from the family Lemuridae, include three subfamilies and nine genera, including the genus Varecia and the species V. variegata, the Ruffed Lemur. The Black Lemur (V. v. variegata) appears black with white patches of fur, while the Red Ruffed Lemur (V. v. ruber) appears red with black patches of fur. V. variegata is the largest species weighing 3.2-4.5 kg (7-9.9 lbs) and having a body length (including tail) of 56-65 cm (22-26 in). Varecia lives in the tropical forest of Madagascar, whose forests and temperate woodlands are home to all Lemurs. V. variegata is primarily frugivorous and is crepuscular, meaning that it is more active around dawn or dusk.
Lorises have four genera, two Asiatic and two African. Nycticebus coucang coucang, the nocturnal Slow Loris, is one of the Asiatic species that lives in the jungles of Southeast Asia. N. coucang coucang is arboreal, rarely coming down to the ground, with a very deliberate form of quadrupedal locomotion that involves putting one hand forward, then bringing the foot from the same side up to the hand, and then repeating this same process for the other side. Despite weighing approximately 1.4 kg (3.1 lbs.), N. coucang coucang has a unique way of warding off predators; the Slow Loris not only has a toxic bite, but also is toxic to eat.
Squirrel Monkeys live in the jungles of Central and South America. The family Cebidae contains 11 genera and 65 species. Squirrel Monkeys are distinguished by a white, mask-like face, a dark cap, and hairless muzzle around the nose and mouth. Their gray bodies have white bellies, and a two-toned tail tipped with black. Saimiri, the smallest genus, weighs 500-1100 g (1.1-2.4 lbs) and has a head-to-tail length of 35-42.5 cm (13.7-16.7 in). Saimiri oerstedii lives on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Panama subsisting on insects, flowers and fruits. Saimiri are "flush-hunters", meaning they catch insects and small vertebrates that move when other monkeys come through the forest.
Tarsiers' eyes are stationary in their orbits requiring that they rotate their heads almost 360 degrees to change their field of visions. Of all the primates, Tarsiers have the largest eyes relative to body size with an average eyeball diameter of 16 mm. Tarsius bancanus, one of the five Tarsius species, lives in Borneo and Sumatra. Adults weigh 80-165 g (.17-.36 lb), and have head and body lengths of 8.5-16 cm (3.3-6.3 in). They have small upper bodies, extremely long hindlimbs, and large heads. Tarsiers are nocturnal, feeding on invertebrates and vertebrates, including small poisonous snakes. As vertical clingers and leapers, they can jump distances up to 6 m (18 ft) at a time.